Thursday, August 27, 2020

Common Reading Reaction Paper Free Essays

It’s basic information that there will be numerous individuals to be experienced in life that you can identify with somehow. I wind up identifying with Mishna Wolff from â€Å"I’m Down† from multiple points of view. From sharing fundamentally the same as encounters to having practically indistinguishable character attributes, I can no ifs, ands or buts relate to Mishna. We will compose a custom paper test on Basic Reading Reaction Paper or then again any comparable subject just for you Request Now It’s unavoidable while you’re growing up and learning new things in school, you connect yourself to others with comparable premiums or simply share a type of science. As such, your â€Å"best friend† or â€Å"BFF† as others might want to call them. I’ve consistently had a closest companion, even since the beginning (3 years of age to be careful). For some odd reason my first closest companion was African-American. I never observed myself unique in relation to her, where being white or dark had no significance in my psyche. There were commonly where I’d go through the night at her home, and her family would be finished. I’d never got a handle on a greater amount of spot. The boisterous and unruly discussions, the slang I’d never heard, and simply the air was very surprising. This is the place I believe I can identify with Mishna, when she started â€Å"capping† with the local children to fit in. I had consistently wanted to change how I talked and carried on around her family. I had never gotten a handle on a greater amount of spot. Notwithstanding fitting in, Mishna had additionally joined a wide range of sports to satisfy her dad and win back (or an equivalent measure) of partiality. I can relate to this experience also. All through my youth I had bounced starting with one game then onto the next, from taking anguishing expressive dance classes, swimming, soccer, lastly cheer-driving. From the outset I began included myself in them since I needed to take a stab at something new; however it wound up being on the grounds that I was vieing for consideration from my more youthful sibling. My sibling had been playing baseball since he was six years of age. My mom and father, and even a portion of my more distant family could never neglect to observe each and every one of his games. My dad would rise himself in my brother’s baseball work on, going through hours after-school instructing him and a portion of his colleagues. With this consideration spent on my sibling and his baseball, I had consistently learned about left. My folks would drop me off at my own training and neither one of them included themselves in any game I was in. Mishna is envisioned in the book to be, generally, genuinely agreeable and doesn’t let such a large number of things trouble her. At the point when her dad says something preposterous or downright out of line, she depends on hushing up about everything. I can likewise identify with her thusly. There are ordinarily when somebody says something I can't help contradicting and I’m ready to simply disregard it and not let it influence me. In any case, there are numerous things Mishna did that I don’t agree with. When Mishna’s father told a gathering of individuals directly before her that Anora was â€Å"his girl† and simply let it slide that way, see, I wouldn’t let that go as without any problem. To me, that’s something amazingly upsetting to hear, seeing as your dad should cherish you unequivocally. Had it been my close to the steps spying on that discussion, I wouldn’t have thoroughly considered it twice to call my mom and go live with her. In addition, on the off chance that I was Mishna, I wouldn’t have let Anora pull off everything. The shamefulness is simply unfathomable and I could never permit it to go the extent that it did. In the event that my more youthful kin did things that were unseemly or was accomplishing something incorrectly and one of my folks just disregarded it like Mishna’s father did, I would have said something or acted in a similar way as Anora until everything was advocated. Had Mishna taken care of business, I don’t think things wouldn’t have gotten as terrible as they did with respect to her sister. At last, Mishna and I are indistinguishable in the things we think and do. I have had the option to identify with pretty much every experience she imparted to us in â€Å"I’m Down†, from the issues of fitting in to the issues with her dad. I feel that every one of these things make us the individual we are today, and for that, we shouldn’t be embarrassed about any of it. Mishna composing this book just yells to be glad for what your identity is and where you originate from. The most effective method to refer to Common Reading Reaction Paper, Essay models

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Take Advantage of Your Summer on Campus!

Eager to be on a school grounds this summer?College summer programs for secondary school understudies are incredible for some reasons. They offer understudies the chance to take progressively troublesome classes in the subjects they are intrigued or even investigate classes that aren’t offered in secondary school. What's more, they can make new companions from everywhere throughout the nation and get the opportunity to encounter what life resembles on a school grounds. However, before you get found all that the mid year program brings to the table, we need to help you to remember a couple of things you can exploit when you’re on the school grounds. Being nearby over the late spring is an ideal open door for you to get familiar with the school and associate with key individuals face to face. 1. Converse with the Admissions Office Since you’re as of now nearby, go to the confirmations office! Acquaint yourself and talk with somebody on the confirmations group. Ask them inquiries about the application procedure and the school’s culture. It’s in every case great to have a contact in the confirmations office in the event that any inconveniences come up in your application procedure and you have to connect with somebody in the workplace. Manufacture a relationship with a confirmations official. 2. Contact Professors Have a subject you’re keen on? Email the educators in the significant division you’re inspired by and check whether you can plan a period with them to visit. Converse with them face to face and get familiar with what it’s like to study the subject, what the potential vocation ways are, and if there are any examination open doors you can engage in. Now, you may not be sure what you’d like to concentrate yet, so investigate and discover what it’d resemble on the off chance that you majored in something that piquesyour premium at this point. 3. Associate with Current College Students Since it is summer, there won’t be that numerous undergrads nearby. Having said that, there will at present be a bunch who are taking seminars nearby over the mid year or leading examination. Some may even be your camp chief or your TA! Converse with them about what it’s like to be an understudy there. What’s the grounds culture like? What do they like/loathe about the school? It doesn’t even must be explicit to the school. It may be increasingly useful for you to become familiar with how they moved toward the school determination process when all is said in done. 4. Look at the College Town Don’t simply center around the grounds. Look at the area you’re in. Suppose you went to class there. Would it be anything but difficult to get supper off-grounds? What are some go-to spots? Are things strategically placed? Are there acceptable open air spots you can get to if youre into outside exercises? Since you are there on a late spring program, you might not have as much leisure time to do this, yet keep your eyes open! It’s an extraordinary chance to see things you care about while you’re there. 5. Investigate the City The advantages of being a piece of a late spring program is that there are typically worked in exercises that permit you to perceive what the encompassing or close by city brings to the table to the understudies who go to school there. It might be a field excursion to a historical center or theater, a day at a ranchers advertise, or a climbing trip. It’s essential to comprehend what your quick encompassing is around grounds, however it’s additionally great to realize what your different choices are on the off chance that you needed to step away from grounds and participate in city life. Applying to school this up and coming school year? For access to our school profiles, move up to ourpremium plans, whichoffer various degrees of profile access and information bits of knowledge that can assist you with getting into your fantasy school.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Essay Topics - Choosing the Best Topics For Your Essay

Essay Topics - Choosing the Best Topics For Your EssayWhen writing an essay, one of the most important parts is choosing the best essay topics. The topics you choose have a great impact on how well your essay is received and how you appear to other readers.There are many advantages to choosing a topic that is in line with your personality. The ability to think on your feet, especially if you are reading through an essay topic as you read. However, it is important to remember that an essay topic that is not comfortable for you is not going to be comfortable for others. It may be a good idea to write down a list of things that you find more appealing about your hobbies or interests and then write about those topics while you are researching.Another important consideration when choosing a topic is to choose one that you are interested in. You don't want to choose something that is too broad to be interesting to others. Remember that a difficult topic can leave people feeling bored and d rained.When searching for essay topics, keep in mind the goal. Do you want your essay to be used as an evaluation tool? Or, do you want it to be a reflection of who you are and what you are passionate about?Essays that are being used for evaluation purposes typically have points where students will show their work. Students are given a grade on their ability to summarize and demonstrate their knowledge. It also helps to make sure that your essay has some points where you can have a discussion with your reader.One option when looking for essay topics is to choose what the subject is about. After all, you don't have to write something that is a complete mystery. You can also choose topics that are relevant to your area of study. Make sure that it is clearly defined.If you want to make sure that your essay topics are really suited for you, choose something that you are passionate about. Once you have picked a topic, it will be easier to convey the information in your essay. This gives you a broader scope for the information. And if you like something, you will be able to get into it much more easily than if you chose something that you weren't that interested in.There are many reasons why essay topics can be so important. They can allow you to express yourself and give you the opportunity to reach your readers. They are also very useful in evaluating the abilities of others in the class and within the class. But one of the most important factors is choosing the best essay topics.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Making Decisions Within The State Of Alaska - 1122 Words

Making decisions within the State of Alaska, Department of Corrections requires followings explicit legal standards (State of Alaska, 2015b). Every aspect of a decision will be subject to criticisms of management, staff, legal sources, and a civilian populace who may weigh in. Additionally, every decision is exceedingly scrutinized after the fact due to the environment in which effects are felt. The diverse population that is subject to the result of most training, the delivery, manner in which the context is received, and the content itself mandates precise delivery. Moreover, the fact that decisions in training, delivery, and content may not be fully evaluated until weeks or months after the fact. For this reason, the decision in†¦show more content†¦Without proper decision-making skills, the State of Alaska or the Department of Corrections may be subject to scrutiny. To ensure proper decisions processing with a lot of checks and balances are made, managerial decisio n-making tools may be used. Discussion Managerial decision tools provide a degree of procedural steps that increase the speed and accuracy of the result. The State of Alaska training requires this degree of accuracy in the decision-making process (State of Alaska, 2015a). Elements of the tools used by managers incorporate quickly identifiable needs or directions to meet specific requirements. These requirements are essential in the Training Needs and the Tools Available to meet the needs. The process begins with the needs of the State of Alaska, Department of Corrections. Training Needs The State of Alaska Department of Corrections has specific training needs ranging in topics from the wear of the uniform to use of deadly force. Each topic has a necessity of delivery and criticality that depicts the method of delivery, time, and setting of the training (State of Alaska, 2015a; Department of Corrections. 2002; State of Alaska 2015, June 14a; Phillips, 1997). The same standards apply to the degree of knowledge delivery, retention and recall both immediately as well as over time. For this reason, there are several common delivery methods the department may use

Friday, May 15, 2020

Hotel Industry Employee

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4287 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Descriptive essay Did you like this example? The hotel industry has long struggled to establish what truly makes hotel employees motivated and satisfied with their jobs. High employee turnover in the hotel industry is believed to be due to the nature of the work, its low pay, and its long working hours. Thus, to effectively address this turnover problem, employee motivation could be an on-going and critical issue for managers in hotel operations. (Chiang and Jang 2008) Chitiris (1990, 293) strongly emphasized the importance of motivation by stating that Motivation is the prime determinant of behaviour at work and that high ability and high levels of job training will not result in high performance if the individual is completely de-motivated or under-motivated at work. In addition to that, Lee-Ross (2005) elaborated on the significant connection between motivation in the workplace and practical organizational-based outcomes such as productivity, commitment, job satisfaction, intent to stay and burnout. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Hotel Industry Employee | Tourism Dissertation" essay for you Create order According to Robbins et al. (2008, 180), motivation can be defined as The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries, and is generally the focus of motivation. However, high intensity is unlikely to bring favourable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channelled in the right direction. Finally, the persistence dimension of motivation is a measure of how long a person can maintain effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. Fundamentally, Hackman and Oldhams (1976) theory of motivation is concerned with internal work motivation whereby a continuous cycle of motivation happens within the employee. In other words, the more effort expended on a job, the more motivated they would become. (Chiang and Jang 2008; Lee-Ross 2005) While on the job, motivation is important for individuals. In some theories (e.g. expectancy or equity), researchers predict variations in the evaluations of motivational outcomes, for example, by using remuneration. However, the evaluation of remuneration is usually only one of many outcomes and is often measured with little accuracy. (Mitchell and Mickel 1999) The biggest challenge of employee motivation is that employees often motivate themselves, based on their perception of what they want to achieve and how they can achieve it. However, if managers are aware of what their employees want from work, they can design a work environment that accommodates employees needs and desires. At the same time, well-informed managers may be able to avoid common pitfalls that tend to reduce employee motivation. (Simons and Enz 1995) If a company knows why its employees come to work on time, stay with the company for their full working lives, and are productive, then it might be able to ensure that all of its employees behave in that way (Kovach 1987, 58). Such a company would naturally have a competitive advantage over competitors that may be suffering from high absenteeism and turnover rates, costly re-training programs, and production slowdowns. Wiley (1997) emphasized that in the case of the lack of ability in employees, appropriate training can be implemented; while altering the work environment to promote higher performance is the key in the event of environmental problems. However, if motivation is the problem, the solution would be more complicated and testing. For motivational problems, the best source of information would be the employees. Responses by employees regarding what ignites and sustains their desire to work may lead the employer to redesign jobs, increase pay, change the working environment, or give more credit for work done. The key is that managers should always avoid the assumption that what motivates them will motivate their employees as well. Riley, Ladkin, and Szivas (2002) cited in Taylor and Davies (2004) that the World Tourism Organization announced tourism and hospitality industry as the worlds largest industry sector. Despite the concern about accurately quantifying the definition of tourism as an industry, for employment estimation purposes, it is considered to be one and a half times larger than the next industry. The accommodation sector has continued to exhibit growth over the last few decades, although at various rates, and is forecasted to continue this growth both in development and employment numbers. Therefore, a huge number of employees in the hotel industry are employed on an hourly basis due to meet the highly seasonal industry demand. A review of the literature indicates that there are problems in the hotel industry such as inadequate pay, low job security, limited training and development opportunities, and excessive turnover. (Cheng and Brown 1998; Deery and Shaw 1999; Pizam and Thornburg 2000; Karatepe and Uludag 2007). There are also problems pertaining to unsocial work hours and workloads in the hotel industry. (Karatepe and Sokmen 2006; Rowley and Purcell 2001; Karatepe and Uludag 2007) The studies of Lee-Ross (1993) added that these problems in the hotel industry seemed to be more extreme in the seasonal or casual employment sector. Understanding hotel employees attitudes and motivations has therefore become a useful area of research in the industry. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) Weaver (1988) argued that hotel managers have experimented with various motivational theories and methods over the years to address the problem of declining productivity among their hourly employees. However, most of these experiments have had minimal success, because they are based on reward systems that have little meaning for hourly employees. If hotel managers are able to satisfy employees needs and wants by understanding their underlying motivations better, it will play a part in retaining and motivating hotel employees. This, in return, will improve customer satisfaction in the long run. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) Iverson and Deery (1997, 71) noted that Turnover culture is best characterised as the acceptance of turnover as part of the workgroup norm. Alternatively, it is a belief held by employees that turnover behaviour is quite appropriate especially in the hotel industry. In the hotel industry, employees strongly require intelligence, job knowledge and skills, and time management ability. However, without motivation, an employee will not advance in his or her career. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) The amount of effort an employee inputs toward achieving the hotels goals depends on whether the employee believes that this effort will lead to the satisfaction of his or her own needs and desires. When a need or desire is unsatisfied, a person tries to reduce the tension. From this straightforward approach to motivating employees, the key to facilitating motivation lies with managers accurate understanding of what their employees want from their work. (Simons and Enz 1995) A category of motivational models is based on the assumption that personal growth and achievement is the primary motivating force among employees. These models emphasize on giving ones best efforts to grow and develop as an individual or to advance within the organization. This category of motivational theories includes Maslows theory of self-actualization, and Herzbergs theory of maintenance factors and motivational factors. Maslows theory of self-actualisation has no relevance in the work environment of hourly employees. On the other hand, career-oriented and salaried employees are more likely to be motivated by assurances that the organization will provide opportunities to actualize their full potential. (Weaver 1988) In relation to that, Herzberg divided working conditions into two sets of factors: maintenance factors and motivational factors. According to Herzberg, company policies, technical supervision, interpersonal relationships, salary and status, job security, working conditions, and personal life are maintenance factors; while advancement, recognition, achievement, possibility for personal growth, responsibility, and the work itself are motivational factors. Herzberg believes that maintenance factors do not have the ability to motivate workers. Many hotel managers might agree with this argument, since their early years in the industry were most likely to be characterised by unfavourable maintenance factors, yet they continued their career due to the presence of Herzbergs motivational factors. (Weaver 1988) Another argument of Herzbergs two-factor theory, also known as the motivation-hygiene theory, divides need satisfactions into extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors (e.g. salary, working conditions, and job security) lead to job dissatisfaction if not met; but will not necessarily contribute to job satisfaction when they are met. The intrinsic factors (e.g. work itself, achievement, and recognition) are the actual motivators; they fulfil an individuals need for psychological growth. The extrinsic factors, on the other hand, merely prevent dissatisfaction. (Kovach 1987) Besides Maslows theory of self-actualization, the conditions of employment Herzberg views as motivational factors also do not apply to the work of hourly employees. In other words, hourly employees are less likely to be motivated by motivational factors that are related to personal growth and achievement. Weaver (1988, 41) stated that Other models attempt to motivate employees by using psychological rewards or punishment, or try to increase employees commitment and productivity by generating a sense of team or family spirit within the organization. These models may backfire instead since the overuse of threats or reprimands may serve as a strong force against motivation. Hostile and distrusting supervisors can dramatically shape employees working conditions, and, for many employees, can diminish motivation levels, argued Simons and Enz (1995, 23). McGregors Theory X and Theory Y and Ouchis Theory Z describe motivational approaches managers have employed specifically to motivate hourly employees (Weaver 1988). These theories are most likely to be applicable in the hotel industry due to its ever-changing, seasonal and labour-intensive nature. Theory X operates in the assumption that employees are lazy and have a strong dislike for work. Managers who agree with this view believe that employees will not be productive unless they are continually prompted and are punished by disciplinary action or the threat of dismissal for low productivity. (Weaver 1988) On the other hand, Weaver (1988) said that Theory Y is based on the assumption that an employees presence at the workplace indicates that he or she is willing to work. Proponents of Theory Y believe that guidance and positive feedback are sufficient to motivate hourly workers to work well. In recent years, many hotel groups have made a conscious change from Theory X to Theory Y management. This change should generally show positive results, since people respond better to encouragement and compliments than to prodding and punishment. However, employees may not always be willing to put out 100 percent effort just because their supervisor is being nice to them. In addition to that, Theory Z is based on the Japanese management model, which focuses on a strong company philosophy and a distinct corporate culture. Companies that develop a motivational model based on Theory Z try to convince employees that they are part of a team or family. Many hotels are starting to implement such motivational programmes in hope of cultivating a sense of family and loyalty within their employees. (Weaver 1988) Interestingly, Weaver (1988) found that hotel employees are often more sceptical than employees in most other industries. This may be due to the fact that they work in an environment where they see how people really behave when they are away from home. Hourly employees in the hotel industry are usually fully aware of what their interest are and are not easily motivated by programmes that they perceive as being unbeneficial and a waste of time. Lee-Ross (2005) stated that high motivation and subsequent job satisfaction can be achieved as long as an individuals job contains sufficient content variables such as skill variety and challenge. He also argued that the other process school states that these positive outcomes depend not only on content variables, but also on how workers evaluate the pros and cons of undertaking a job. Motivation factors including pay, monetary rewards, opportunity for advancement and promotion have been examined in the hotel industry. Also, other motivation factors such as job responsibility, recognition from people, job challenge, feelings of accomplishment, and development of self-esteem have been identified important for hotel employees. (Chiang and Jang 2008; Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation for hotel employees may also vary in comparison to employees in other industries due to their intensive labour work, low pay, image of low status and few opportunities for advancement (Chiang and Jang 2008). In moving across cultures, motivational preferences become even more diverse. The preferences of employees are expected to differ across nations and cultures. (Fisher and Yuan 1998) It is valuable to know exactly what employees value, and whether subgroups of employees have differing preferences, so that reward systems can be appropriately targeted. Often, superiors misperceive the relative importance of various job characteristics for their employees. To the extent that they do (misperceive), they may adopt less than optimal motivation strategies because they misunderstand employees needs and wants. (Fisher and Yuan 1998, 517) The lack of attachment or loyalty plays a large part in the high rate of turnover among hourly employees. It also accounts for the lack of success of motivational efforts based on company loyalty or the promise of career advancement and personal growth within a company. (Weaver 1988) In 1946, industrial employees were asked to rank ten job reward factors in terms of personal preference. The results were as follows: (Kovach 1987, 59) Full appreciation of work done; Feelings of being in on things; Sympathetic help with personal problems; Job security; Good wages; Interesting work; Promotion and growth in the organization; Personal loyalty to employees; Good working conditions; and Tactful discipline. By 1986, the list looked like this: Interesting work; Full appreciation of work done; Feeling of being in on things; Job security; Good wages; Promotion and growth in the organization; Good working conditions; Personal loyalty to employees; Tactful discipline; and Sympathetic help with personal problems. In addition to comparing the employees factor rankings, the survey that was done in 1986 analysed the employees responses by subgroups (e.g. age and income). The underlying assumption was that the motivational effectiveness of the factors might vary according to gender, age, income level, job type and/or organizational level. (Kovach 1987) The 40 years of studies done by Kovach shaped the belief held by many motivational programmes that money does not matter (Simons and Enz 1995). Industrial employees seem to place more emphasis on intrinsic motivational factors compared to wages. In addition to that, in 1946 and 1986, supervisors were asked to rank job rewards as they believed employees would rank them. Their rankings remained almost the same for both years: (Kovach 1987, 59) Good wages; Job security; Promotion and growth in the organization; Good working conditions; Interesting work; Personal loyalty to employees; Tactful discipline; Full appreciation of work done; Sympathetic help with personal problems; and Feeling of being in on things. The rankings show that supervisors have a very inaccurate perception of what motivates employees. Supervisors assumed that employees were strongly motivated by the extrinsic factors and benefits given by organizations, thus leading to a mismatch of remuneration components. However, in 1992, the replication done by Wiley (1997, 268) in hotel employees showed a completely different set of rankings: Good wages; Full appreciation of work done; Job security; Promotion and growth in the organization; Interesting work; Personal loyalty to employees; Good working conditions; Tactful discipline; Feeling of being in on things; and Sympathetic help with personal problems. This could be due to the fact that hotel employees differed substantially from industrial employees. This difference in rankings indicates the need for different managerial strategies for motivating hotel employees, relative to those used for industrial employees. Hotel employees ranked good wages first, which may be a result of the relatively low wages of service-sector jobs. (Simons and Enz 1995) In addition to that, a research done by Charles and Marshall (1992) showed that Caribbean hotel employees may not have the same motivational preferences as those in developed countries. Whereas wages have not been found to be an important motivator in similar research conducted in developed countries, they were ranked highest among this group of Caribbean employees. Proper motivation of employees is vital as it is directly related with productivity and retention. Employees who are contented with their jobs, who feel challenged, and who have the opportunity to fulfil their goals will exhibit less destructive behaviour on the job. They will also be absent less frequently, they will be less inclined to switch jobs, and, most importantly, they will be more efficient. (Kovach 1987) Considering the evident relationship between employee and customer satisfaction, different approaches have been experimented in the attempt to improve employee satisfaction. Predictably, the list was led by compensation, although most anticipate this will become less important in the future. Employee recognition programmes, the opportunity for career advancement and exposure to training followed in order of impact. (Cline 1997, 24) The concept that employees may prefer interesting work over good wages is interesting, but the early studies were based on employees in the manufacturing industries. It seems very likely that hospitality employees preferences would differ from those of manufacturing employees in important ways (Simons and Enz 1995) as it has been shown in the research done by Wiley in 1997. An interesting point of view by Siu, Tsang, and Wong (1997) explained that job factors that are considered by employees to have the greatest motivating power are usually those that are least present in the job. Thus, managers should identify this gap and implement appropriate changes in the attempt of meeting employees motivational expectations. The ever-changing nature of the hotel industry has created and reinforced a turnover culture. Employees generally enter the industry with the belief that there is limited career development and promotional opportunity (Iverson and Deery 1997). However, other job reward factors may be able to attract, motivate and retain hotel employees through proper implementation. When trying to motivate employees, managers often forget that the desire to perform the job must come from within the employee and not from the supervisor. The level and direction of effort are set by employees, based on their perceptions of the most effective method to satisfy their personal desires. Managers could take employees desires into account in creating an environment, where properly directed effort will give employees some form of satisfaction. For many hotel employees, this ultimate motivational catalyst may involve some form of cash incentive and opportunity for growth. For others, it will focus on job security and good working conditions. (Simons and Enz 1995) Essentially, the human element in the hotel industry forms the basic determining factor for effective performance. Therefore, hotel management should strive to increase employees interest in their work and develop organizational structure and management policies as to create positive work environment in which a wider range of employee needs could be satisfied. (Chitiris 1988) The survey on Kovachs rankings of preferences of job reward factors was done by Wiley in 1997, where it was targeted specifically at hotel employees. An up-to-date comparison is deemed to be necessary especially with the current economic boom. The lack of current literature indicates that there is a gap in defining what really motivates hotel employees in comparison to what managers assume motivates employees these days. Also, different culture may affect the research findings if the survey was done in other countries, given that Rileys research was conducted in USA. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Ecj Has A Major Influence On Making The Constitution...

The ECJ has had a major influence on making the constitution of the EU more supranational by setting rules such as the principle of direct effect, which implies obligation for every EU citizen without having to call in national states, and the primacy of EU law over national law. The ECJ has also had significant influence on other areas of EU policy, such as establishing the principle of mutual recognition of standards in all member states. In other words, the national courts have been incorporated into the administration of EU justice, making the ECJ the most influential judicial body in Europe. Even when compared to other dominant national constitutional courts such as the US Supreme Court or German Federal Constitutional Court, the†¦show more content†¦The ECB, however, was declared to be highly supranational from the very outset, and its effects on national sovereignty were recognised by the member states in the Treaty of Maastricht. Member states, unlike in the case of the ECJ, were fully aware they would be giving up significant aspects of monetary and fiscal autonomy. However, the ECJ has more flexibility than the ECB to interpret which duties fall within its responsibility. In the case of the ECB, the roles are well defined and it has a very specific institutional mandate, whereas the ECJ’s roles are not well delineated and change over time as the institution transforms. With no limitation or even guidance on the rules of interpretation that should be applied, the ECJ can adopt its own methods for interpreting the Treaty, establishing its difference from national and international legal systems. Thus, the ECJ has increased its authority through its interpretation of the law and rules. Moreover, the ECJ and national courts have continued to exist in parallel and a crucial element of the ECJ’s competency depends on the national courts for implementation. By contrast, the ECB took over all the crucial functions of the national central banks and its institutional structure does not depend on the national central banks to any great extent. Nevertheless, neither the ECJ nor the ECB is subject to member state government oversight like the European Commission, which can be overruled by the Council of Ministers.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Information Technology and Project Management - MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Information Technology and Project Management. Answer: According to Too and Weaver ( 2014), change management can be defined as the approach utilized by individuals, project teams and organizations, in order to redirect the usage of resources, budgets, business process, and plans, such that they can get accustomed with any change within the existing environment. In case of the project under consideration, appropriate change management processes would essentially be implemented at such situations when changes in the project scope or plan are requested by the client end and/ or by the members of the project team. Under such circumstances, the following steps would be utilized for ensuring that the changes being requested are justified: Change documentation: The stakeholder raising the change requests would be instruct to document the requests following appropriate templates and structures, thus highlighting the reason behind raising the request, the possible positive and negative effect on the project in case the same is not implemented and the probable effects on the project in case the requested changes are implemented. Discussions on the change request: Once the request documents are available to the higher management associated with the project, the project manager starts reviewing the requests made an the expected outcomes of the same. Besides this, the project manager also takes into account the extent to which the project team has proceeded with the project activities and the extent to which the said progress would be hampered in case the requested changes are incorporated. The review of the above mentioned factors would lead to the finalization of the change requests that can possibly be considered. Once this particular task is completed, the entire project team would start working on the budgetary and resource calculation aspects of the project, so as to highlight the additional budget, resources an time required for incorporating the changes. Detailed records regarding these requirements would then be submitted to the client for the final approval on these change requests. In case the changes are approved by the client and the project sponsor, information regarding the same is shared with all members of the project team. On the other hand, in case the change proposals are dismissed, the information is passed on to that particular stakeholder who raised the change request at the first place. Change implementation: This is the final phase of the change management phase, which is conducted only in case the change requests raised by the stakeholder are approved from the client end. The implementation of the approved changes would be conducted through the following phases: Phase 1: Preparation for change implementation: The strategies and processes to be utilized in the implementation of the change has to be identified, along with the development of the plans required for implementing the same. b. Phase 2: Managing the change: In this phase, the strategic plan develop for the implementation of the change would be shared with the members of the change management team, for the purpose of appropriate implementation of the same. Phase 3: Reinforcing the change: In this phase of the change management process, the project manager would collect feedback from the team members regarding the change, such that success of the change can be observed from the perspective of the team mates along with the identification of any resistance to the same. Based on the information collected from the feedbacks, corrective measures would be taken so as to fill up the gaps in the change management process and to manage the resistance effectively. Communication with Stakeholders The stakeholders associated with the project have been outlined in following table, along with the methods and techniques to be followed in communicating with them. According to researchers Mir and Pinnington (2014), the project closure phase is essentially the last stage of any project activity. The following steps would follow during the project closure phase of the project under consideration: Contract closure: The contracts with the project sponsor, client and the vendors have to close. Verification of scope requirements: The primary aim of the project is to deliver such ICT system to the client that meets all the specific requirements documented in the project charter. Thus, it is essential that the client verifies that the product delivered meets all the requirements included in the scope document and acknowledges the same. Development of project reports: The final reports of the project have to documented in this phase and archived in a proper manner, such that the references to the same can be easily made in future. Conducting post project review: A post project review has to be conducted and the same has to be submitted to the client end. Releasing resources: The resources working on the project would be released. Bibliography: Burke, R., 2013. Project management: planning and control techniques.New Jersey, USA. Kerzner, H., 2013.Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Martinelli, R.J. and Milosevic, D.Z., 2016.Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley Sons. Mir, F.A. and Pinnington, A.H., 2014. Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success.International Journal of Project Management,32(2), pp.202-217. Pemsel, S. and Wiewiora, A., 2013. Project management office a knowledge broker in project-based organisations.International Journal of Project Management,31(1), pp.31-42. Schwalbe, K., 2015.Information technology project management. Cengage Learning. Too, E.G. and Weaver, P., 2014. The management of project management: A conceptual framework for project governance.International Journal of Project Management,32(8), pp.1382-1394. Verzuh, E., 2015.The fast forward MBA in project management. John Wiley Sons.