Monday, May 25, 2020

Making Decisions Within The State Of Alaska - 1122 Words

Making decisions within the State of Alaska, Department of Corrections requires followings explicit legal standards (State of Alaska, 2015b). Every aspect of a decision will be subject to criticisms of management, staff, legal sources, and a civilian populace who may weigh in. Additionally, every decision is exceedingly scrutinized after the fact due to the environment in which effects are felt. The diverse population that is subject to the result of most training, the delivery, manner in which the context is received, and the content itself mandates precise delivery. Moreover, the fact that decisions in training, delivery, and content may not be fully evaluated until weeks or months after the fact. For this reason, the decision in†¦show more content†¦Without proper decision-making skills, the State of Alaska or the Department of Corrections may be subject to scrutiny. To ensure proper decisions processing with a lot of checks and balances are made, managerial decisio n-making tools may be used. Discussion Managerial decision tools provide a degree of procedural steps that increase the speed and accuracy of the result. The State of Alaska training requires this degree of accuracy in the decision-making process (State of Alaska, 2015a). Elements of the tools used by managers incorporate quickly identifiable needs or directions to meet specific requirements. These requirements are essential in the Training Needs and the Tools Available to meet the needs. The process begins with the needs of the State of Alaska, Department of Corrections. Training Needs The State of Alaska Department of Corrections has specific training needs ranging in topics from the wear of the uniform to use of deadly force. Each topic has a necessity of delivery and criticality that depicts the method of delivery, time, and setting of the training (State of Alaska, 2015a; Department of Corrections. 2002; State of Alaska 2015, June 14a; Phillips, 1997). The same standards apply to the degree of knowledge delivery, retention and recall both immediately as well as over time. For this reason, there are several common delivery methods the department may use

Friday, May 15, 2020

Hotel Industry Employee

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4287 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Descriptive essay Did you like this example? The hotel industry has long struggled to establish what truly makes hotel employees motivated and satisfied with their jobs. High employee turnover in the hotel industry is believed to be due to the nature of the work, its low pay, and its long working hours. Thus, to effectively address this turnover problem, employee motivation could be an on-going and critical issue for managers in hotel operations. (Chiang and Jang 2008) Chitiris (1990, 293) strongly emphasized the importance of motivation by stating that Motivation is the prime determinant of behaviour at work and that high ability and high levels of job training will not result in high performance if the individual is completely de-motivated or under-motivated at work. In addition to that, Lee-Ross (2005) elaborated on the significant connection between motivation in the workplace and practical organizational-based outcomes such as productivity, commitment, job satisfaction, intent to stay and burnout. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Hotel Industry Employee | Tourism Dissertation" essay for you Create order According to Robbins et al. (2008, 180), motivation can be defined as The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries, and is generally the focus of motivation. However, high intensity is unlikely to bring favourable job-performance outcomes unless the effort is channelled in the right direction. Finally, the persistence dimension of motivation is a measure of how long a person can maintain effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve their goal. Fundamentally, Hackman and Oldhams (1976) theory of motivation is concerned with internal work motivation whereby a continuous cycle of motivation happens within the employee. In other words, the more effort expended on a job, the more motivated they would become. (Chiang and Jang 2008; Lee-Ross 2005) While on the job, motivation is important for individuals. In some theories (e.g. expectancy or equity), researchers predict variations in the evaluations of motivational outcomes, for example, by using remuneration. However, the evaluation of remuneration is usually only one of many outcomes and is often measured with little accuracy. (Mitchell and Mickel 1999) The biggest challenge of employee motivation is that employees often motivate themselves, based on their perception of what they want to achieve and how they can achieve it. However, if managers are aware of what their employees want from work, they can design a work environment that accommodates employees needs and desires. At the same time, well-informed managers may be able to avoid common pitfalls that tend to reduce employee motivation. (Simons and Enz 1995) If a company knows why its employees come to work on time, stay with the company for their full working lives, and are productive, then it might be able to ensure that all of its employees behave in that way (Kovach 1987, 58). Such a company would naturally have a competitive advantage over competitors that may be suffering from high absenteeism and turnover rates, costly re-training programs, and production slowdowns. Wiley (1997) emphasized that in the case of the lack of ability in employees, appropriate training can be implemented; while altering the work environment to promote higher performance is the key in the event of environmental problems. However, if motivation is the problem, the solution would be more complicated and testing. For motivational problems, the best source of information would be the employees. Responses by employees regarding what ignites and sustains their desire to work may lead the employer to redesign jobs, increase pay, change the working environment, or give more credit for work done. The key is that managers should always avoid the assumption that what motivates them will motivate their employees as well. Riley, Ladkin, and Szivas (2002) cited in Taylor and Davies (2004) that the World Tourism Organization announced tourism and hospitality industry as the worlds largest industry sector. Despite the concern about accurately quantifying the definition of tourism as an industry, for employment estimation purposes, it is considered to be one and a half times larger than the next industry. The accommodation sector has continued to exhibit growth over the last few decades, although at various rates, and is forecasted to continue this growth both in development and employment numbers. Therefore, a huge number of employees in the hotel industry are employed on an hourly basis due to meet the highly seasonal industry demand. A review of the literature indicates that there are problems in the hotel industry such as inadequate pay, low job security, limited training and development opportunities, and excessive turnover. (Cheng and Brown 1998; Deery and Shaw 1999; Pizam and Thornburg 2000; Karatepe and Uludag 2007). There are also problems pertaining to unsocial work hours and workloads in the hotel industry. (Karatepe and Sokmen 2006; Rowley and Purcell 2001; Karatepe and Uludag 2007) The studies of Lee-Ross (1993) added that these problems in the hotel industry seemed to be more extreme in the seasonal or casual employment sector. Understanding hotel employees attitudes and motivations has therefore become a useful area of research in the industry. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) Weaver (1988) argued that hotel managers have experimented with various motivational theories and methods over the years to address the problem of declining productivity among their hourly employees. However, most of these experiments have had minimal success, because they are based on reward systems that have little meaning for hourly employees. If hotel managers are able to satisfy employees needs and wants by understanding their underlying motivations better, it will play a part in retaining and motivating hotel employees. This, in return, will improve customer satisfaction in the long run. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) Iverson and Deery (1997, 71) noted that Turnover culture is best characterised as the acceptance of turnover as part of the workgroup norm. Alternatively, it is a belief held by employees that turnover behaviour is quite appropriate especially in the hotel industry. In the hotel industry, employees strongly require intelligence, job knowledge and skills, and time management ability. However, without motivation, an employee will not advance in his or her career. (Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) The amount of effort an employee inputs toward achieving the hotels goals depends on whether the employee believes that this effort will lead to the satisfaction of his or her own needs and desires. When a need or desire is unsatisfied, a person tries to reduce the tension. From this straightforward approach to motivating employees, the key to facilitating motivation lies with managers accurate understanding of what their employees want from their work. (Simons and Enz 1995) A category of motivational models is based on the assumption that personal growth and achievement is the primary motivating force among employees. These models emphasize on giving ones best efforts to grow and develop as an individual or to advance within the organization. This category of motivational theories includes Maslows theory of self-actualization, and Herzbergs theory of maintenance factors and motivational factors. Maslows theory of self-actualisation has no relevance in the work environment of hourly employees. On the other hand, career-oriented and salaried employees are more likely to be motivated by assurances that the organization will provide opportunities to actualize their full potential. (Weaver 1988) In relation to that, Herzberg divided working conditions into two sets of factors: maintenance factors and motivational factors. According to Herzberg, company policies, technical supervision, interpersonal relationships, salary and status, job security, working conditions, and personal life are maintenance factors; while advancement, recognition, achievement, possibility for personal growth, responsibility, and the work itself are motivational factors. Herzberg believes that maintenance factors do not have the ability to motivate workers. Many hotel managers might agree with this argument, since their early years in the industry were most likely to be characterised by unfavourable maintenance factors, yet they continued their career due to the presence of Herzbergs motivational factors. (Weaver 1988) Another argument of Herzbergs two-factor theory, also known as the motivation-hygiene theory, divides need satisfactions into extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors (e.g. salary, working conditions, and job security) lead to job dissatisfaction if not met; but will not necessarily contribute to job satisfaction when they are met. The intrinsic factors (e.g. work itself, achievement, and recognition) are the actual motivators; they fulfil an individuals need for psychological growth. The extrinsic factors, on the other hand, merely prevent dissatisfaction. (Kovach 1987) Besides Maslows theory of self-actualization, the conditions of employment Herzberg views as motivational factors also do not apply to the work of hourly employees. In other words, hourly employees are less likely to be motivated by motivational factors that are related to personal growth and achievement. Weaver (1988, 41) stated that Other models attempt to motivate employees by using psychological rewards or punishment, or try to increase employees commitment and productivity by generating a sense of team or family spirit within the organization. These models may backfire instead since the overuse of threats or reprimands may serve as a strong force against motivation. Hostile and distrusting supervisors can dramatically shape employees working conditions, and, for many employees, can diminish motivation levels, argued Simons and Enz (1995, 23). McGregors Theory X and Theory Y and Ouchis Theory Z describe motivational approaches managers have employed specifically to motivate hourly employees (Weaver 1988). These theories are most likely to be applicable in the hotel industry due to its ever-changing, seasonal and labour-intensive nature. Theory X operates in the assumption that employees are lazy and have a strong dislike for work. Managers who agree with this view believe that employees will not be productive unless they are continually prompted and are punished by disciplinary action or the threat of dismissal for low productivity. (Weaver 1988) On the other hand, Weaver (1988) said that Theory Y is based on the assumption that an employees presence at the workplace indicates that he or she is willing to work. Proponents of Theory Y believe that guidance and positive feedback are sufficient to motivate hourly workers to work well. In recent years, many hotel groups have made a conscious change from Theory X to Theory Y management. This change should generally show positive results, since people respond better to encouragement and compliments than to prodding and punishment. However, employees may not always be willing to put out 100 percent effort just because their supervisor is being nice to them. In addition to that, Theory Z is based on the Japanese management model, which focuses on a strong company philosophy and a distinct corporate culture. Companies that develop a motivational model based on Theory Z try to convince employees that they are part of a team or family. Many hotels are starting to implement such motivational programmes in hope of cultivating a sense of family and loyalty within their employees. (Weaver 1988) Interestingly, Weaver (1988) found that hotel employees are often more sceptical than employees in most other industries. This may be due to the fact that they work in an environment where they see how people really behave when they are away from home. Hourly employees in the hotel industry are usually fully aware of what their interest are and are not easily motivated by programmes that they perceive as being unbeneficial and a waste of time. Lee-Ross (2005) stated that high motivation and subsequent job satisfaction can be achieved as long as an individuals job contains sufficient content variables such as skill variety and challenge. He also argued that the other process school states that these positive outcomes depend not only on content variables, but also on how workers evaluate the pros and cons of undertaking a job. Motivation factors including pay, monetary rewards, opportunity for advancement and promotion have been examined in the hotel industry. Also, other motivation factors such as job responsibility, recognition from people, job challenge, feelings of accomplishment, and development of self-esteem have been identified important for hotel employees. (Chiang and Jang 2008; Wong, Siu, and Tsang 1999) The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation for hotel employees may also vary in comparison to employees in other industries due to their intensive labour work, low pay, image of low status and few opportunities for advancement (Chiang and Jang 2008). In moving across cultures, motivational preferences become even more diverse. The preferences of employees are expected to differ across nations and cultures. (Fisher and Yuan 1998) It is valuable to know exactly what employees value, and whether subgroups of employees have differing preferences, so that reward systems can be appropriately targeted. Often, superiors misperceive the relative importance of various job characteristics for their employees. To the extent that they do (misperceive), they may adopt less than optimal motivation strategies because they misunderstand employees needs and wants. (Fisher and Yuan 1998, 517) The lack of attachment or loyalty plays a large part in the high rate of turnover among hourly employees. It also accounts for the lack of success of motivational efforts based on company loyalty or the promise of career advancement and personal growth within a company. (Weaver 1988) In 1946, industrial employees were asked to rank ten job reward factors in terms of personal preference. The results were as follows: (Kovach 1987, 59) Full appreciation of work done; Feelings of being in on things; Sympathetic help with personal problems; Job security; Good wages; Interesting work; Promotion and growth in the organization; Personal loyalty to employees; Good working conditions; and Tactful discipline. By 1986, the list looked like this: Interesting work; Full appreciation of work done; Feeling of being in on things; Job security; Good wages; Promotion and growth in the organization; Good working conditions; Personal loyalty to employees; Tactful discipline; and Sympathetic help with personal problems. In addition to comparing the employees factor rankings, the survey that was done in 1986 analysed the employees responses by subgroups (e.g. age and income). The underlying assumption was that the motivational effectiveness of the factors might vary according to gender, age, income level, job type and/or organizational level. (Kovach 1987) The 40 years of studies done by Kovach shaped the belief held by many motivational programmes that money does not matter (Simons and Enz 1995). Industrial employees seem to place more emphasis on intrinsic motivational factors compared to wages. In addition to that, in 1946 and 1986, supervisors were asked to rank job rewards as they believed employees would rank them. Their rankings remained almost the same for both years: (Kovach 1987, 59) Good wages; Job security; Promotion and growth in the organization; Good working conditions; Interesting work; Personal loyalty to employees; Tactful discipline; Full appreciation of work done; Sympathetic help with personal problems; and Feeling of being in on things. The rankings show that supervisors have a very inaccurate perception of what motivates employees. Supervisors assumed that employees were strongly motivated by the extrinsic factors and benefits given by organizations, thus leading to a mismatch of remuneration components. However, in 1992, the replication done by Wiley (1997, 268) in hotel employees showed a completely different set of rankings: Good wages; Full appreciation of work done; Job security; Promotion and growth in the organization; Interesting work; Personal loyalty to employees; Good working conditions; Tactful discipline; Feeling of being in on things; and Sympathetic help with personal problems. This could be due to the fact that hotel employees differed substantially from industrial employees. This difference in rankings indicates the need for different managerial strategies for motivating hotel employees, relative to those used for industrial employees. Hotel employees ranked good wages first, which may be a result of the relatively low wages of service-sector jobs. (Simons and Enz 1995) In addition to that, a research done by Charles and Marshall (1992) showed that Caribbean hotel employees may not have the same motivational preferences as those in developed countries. Whereas wages have not been found to be an important motivator in similar research conducted in developed countries, they were ranked highest among this group of Caribbean employees. Proper motivation of employees is vital as it is directly related with productivity and retention. Employees who are contented with their jobs, who feel challenged, and who have the opportunity to fulfil their goals will exhibit less destructive behaviour on the job. They will also be absent less frequently, they will be less inclined to switch jobs, and, most importantly, they will be more efficient. (Kovach 1987) Considering the evident relationship between employee and customer satisfaction, different approaches have been experimented in the attempt to improve employee satisfaction. Predictably, the list was led by compensation, although most anticipate this will become less important in the future. Employee recognition programmes, the opportunity for career advancement and exposure to training followed in order of impact. (Cline 1997, 24) The concept that employees may prefer interesting work over good wages is interesting, but the early studies were based on employees in the manufacturing industries. It seems very likely that hospitality employees preferences would differ from those of manufacturing employees in important ways (Simons and Enz 1995) as it has been shown in the research done by Wiley in 1997. An interesting point of view by Siu, Tsang, and Wong (1997) explained that job factors that are considered by employees to have the greatest motivating power are usually those that are least present in the job. Thus, managers should identify this gap and implement appropriate changes in the attempt of meeting employees motivational expectations. The ever-changing nature of the hotel industry has created and reinforced a turnover culture. Employees generally enter the industry with the belief that there is limited career development and promotional opportunity (Iverson and Deery 1997). However, other job reward factors may be able to attract, motivate and retain hotel employees through proper implementation. When trying to motivate employees, managers often forget that the desire to perform the job must come from within the employee and not from the supervisor. The level and direction of effort are set by employees, based on their perceptions of the most effective method to satisfy their personal desires. Managers could take employees desires into account in creating an environment, where properly directed effort will give employees some form of satisfaction. For many hotel employees, this ultimate motivational catalyst may involve some form of cash incentive and opportunity for growth. For others, it will focus on job security and good working conditions. (Simons and Enz 1995) Essentially, the human element in the hotel industry forms the basic determining factor for effective performance. Therefore, hotel management should strive to increase employees interest in their work and develop organizational structure and management policies as to create positive work environment in which a wider range of employee needs could be satisfied. (Chitiris 1988) The survey on Kovachs rankings of preferences of job reward factors was done by Wiley in 1997, where it was targeted specifically at hotel employees. An up-to-date comparison is deemed to be necessary especially with the current economic boom. The lack of current literature indicates that there is a gap in defining what really motivates hotel employees in comparison to what managers assume motivates employees these days. Also, different culture may affect the research findings if the survey was done in other countries, given that Rileys research was conducted in USA. Reference List Charles, K. R., and L. H. Marshall. 1992. Motivational Preferences of Caribbean Hotel Workers: An Exploratory Study. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 4 (3): 25-9. ABI/INFORM Global. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?did=525003Fmt=7clientId=22212RQT=309VName=PQD (accessed March 12, 2008). Cheng, A., and A. Brown. 1998. HRM Strategies and Labour Turnover in the Hotel Industry: A Comparative Study of Australia and Singapore. International Journal of Human Resource Management 9 (1): 136-54. Business Source Premier. 10.1080/095851998341233 https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=buhAN=4176346site=ehost-live (accessed April 22, 2008). Chiang, C.-F., and S. Jang. 2008. An Expectancy Theory Model for Hotel Employee Motivation. International Journal of Hospitality Management 27 (2): 313-22. 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An Investigation of the Relationship between Employee Turnover and Organizational Culture. Journal of Hospitality Tourism Research 23 (4): 387-400. SAGE Journals Online. https://jht.sagepub.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/cgi/reprint/23/4/387 (accessed April 24, 2008). Fisher, C. D., and X. Y. Yuan. 1998. What Motivates Employees? A Comparison of US and Chinese Responses. International Journal of Human Resource Management 9 (3): 516-28. Business Source Premier. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=buhAN=4220004site=ehost-live (accessed April 24, 2008). Hackman, J. R., and G. R. Oldham. 1976. Motivation Through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16 (2): 250-79. ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B7J20-4D5WNG6-HR/1/726828b8101dd8bf872a39fa064ee2ad (accessed April 25, 2008). Iverson, R. D., and M. Deery. 1997. Turnover Culture in the Hospitality Industry. Human Resource Management Journal 7 (4): 71-82. ABI/INFORM Global. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?did=23350547Fmt=7clientId=22212RQT=309VName=PQD (accessed March 20, 2008). Karatepe, O. M., and A. Sokmen. 2006. The Effects of Work Role and Family Role Variables on Psychological and Behavioral Outcomes of Frontline Employees. Tourism Management 27 (2): 255-68. ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V9R-4F6CRDP-1/1/adca5fff1a1b404535d326620d9fd47b (accessed April 14, 2008). Karatepe, O. M., and O. Uludag. 2007. Conflict, Exhaustion, and Motivation: A Study of Frontline Employees in Northern Cyprus Hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management 26 (3): 645-65. ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VBH-4KBX4S4-1/1/19f3bc55ac06bed4a46a6776772e067e (accessed March 24, 2008). Kovach, K. A. 1987. What Motivates Employees? Workers and Supervisors Give Different Answers. Business Horizons, 58-65. Business Source Premier. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=buhAN=4530124site=ehost-live (accessed April 24, 2008). Lee-Ross, D. 1993. Two Styles of Hotel Manager, Two Styles of Worker. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 5 (4): 20-4. ABI/INFORM Global. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?did=525107Fmt=7clientId=22212RQT=309VName=PQD (accessed March 4, 2008). Lee-Ross, D. 2005. Perceived Job Characteristics and Internal Work Motivation: An Exploratory Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Motivational Antecedents of Hotel Workers in Mauritius and Australia. The Journal of Management Development 24 (3): 253-66. ABI/INFORM Global. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?did=858891291Fmt=7clientId=22212RQT=309VName=PQD (accessed March 13, 2008). Mitchell, T. R., and A. E. Mickel. 1999. The Meaning of Money: An Individual-Difference Perspective. Academy of Management Review 24 (3): 568-78. JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/stable/pdfplus/259143.pdf (accessed April 24, 2008). Pizam, A., and S. W. Thornburg. 2000. Absenteeism and Voluntary Turnover in Central Florida Hotels: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Hospitality Management 19 (2): 211-7. ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VBH-4090RYJ-B/1/a2e01fb9e334ca2af9fdb3b5eddf8b08 (accessed April 26, 2008). Riley, M., A. Ladkin, and E. Szivas. 2002. Tourism Employment: Analysis and Planning. Clevedon: Channel View Publications. Robbins, S. P., T. A. Judge, B. Millett, and T. Waters-Marsh. 2008. Organisational Behaviour. 5th ed. French Forest: Pearson Education Australia. Rowley, G., and K. Purcell. 2001. As Cooks Go, She Went: Is Labour Churn Inevitable? International Journal of Hospitality Management 20 (2): 163-85. ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VBH-42VV810-5/1/e8353302617abc7a391358b15a352284 (accessed April 26, 2008). Simons, T., and C. A. Enz. 1995. Motivating Hotel Employees: Beyond the Carrot and the Stick. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Feb 1995. 20-7. ABI/INFORM Global. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?index=0did=4683502SrchMode=1sid=2Fmt=6VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1209126970clientId=22212 (accessed March 7, 2008). Siu, V., N. Tsang, and S. Wong. 1997. What Motivates Hong Kongs Hotel Employees? Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 38 (5): 44-9. ABI/INFORM Global. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?did=18185362Fmt=7clientId=22212RQT=309VName=PQD (accessed March 17, 2008). Taylor, R., and D. Davies. 2004. Aspects of Training and Remuneration in the Accommodation Industry: A Comparison between Australian and Singaporean Providers. Journal of European Industrial Training 28 (6/7): 466-73. ABI/INFORM Global. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?did=701328331Fmt=7clientId=22212RQT=309VName=PQD (accessed March 10, 2008). Weaver, T. 1988. Theory M: Motivating With Money. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Nov 1988. 40-5. ABI/INFORM Global. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?index=3did=274882SrchMode=1sid=2Fmt=6VInst=PRODVType=PQDRQT=309VName=PQDTS=1209009749clientId=22212 (accessed March 2, 2008). Wiley, C. 1997. What Motivates Employees According to Over 40 Years of Motivation Surveys. International Journal of Manpower 18 (3): 263-80. Business Source Premier. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=buhAN=95395site=ehost-live (accessed April 24, 2008). Wong, S., V. Siu, and N. Tsang. 1999. The Impact of Demographic Factors on Hong Kong Hotel Employees Choice of Job-Related Motivators. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 11 (5): 230-41. https://proquest.umi.com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/pqdweb?did=115921277Fmt=7clientId=22212RQT=309VName=PQD (accessed March 4, 2008).

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Ecj Has A Major Influence On Making The Constitution...

The ECJ has had a major influence on making the constitution of the EU more supranational by setting rules such as the principle of direct effect, which implies obligation for every EU citizen without having to call in national states, and the primacy of EU law over national law. The ECJ has also had significant influence on other areas of EU policy, such as establishing the principle of mutual recognition of standards in all member states. In other words, the national courts have been incorporated into the administration of EU justice, making the ECJ the most influential judicial body in Europe. Even when compared to other dominant national constitutional courts such as the US Supreme Court or German Federal Constitutional Court, the†¦show more content†¦The ECB, however, was declared to be highly supranational from the very outset, and its effects on national sovereignty were recognised by the member states in the Treaty of Maastricht. Member states, unlike in the case of the ECJ, were fully aware they would be giving up significant aspects of monetary and fiscal autonomy. However, the ECJ has more flexibility than the ECB to interpret which duties fall within its responsibility. In the case of the ECB, the roles are well defined and it has a very specific institutional mandate, whereas the ECJ’s roles are not well delineated and change over time as the institution transforms. With no limitation or even guidance on the rules of interpretation that should be applied, the ECJ can adopt its own methods for interpreting the Treaty, establishing its difference from national and international legal systems. Thus, the ECJ has increased its authority through its interpretation of the law and rules. Moreover, the ECJ and national courts have continued to exist in parallel and a crucial element of the ECJ’s competency depends on the national courts for implementation. By contrast, the ECB took over all the crucial functions of the national central banks and its institutional structure does not depend on the national central banks to any great extent. Nevertheless, neither the ECJ nor the ECB is subject to member state government oversight like the European Commission, which can be overruled by the Council of Ministers.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Information Technology and Project Management - MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about the Information Technology and Project Management. Answer: According to Too and Weaver ( 2014), change management can be defined as the approach utilized by individuals, project teams and organizations, in order to redirect the usage of resources, budgets, business process, and plans, such that they can get accustomed with any change within the existing environment. In case of the project under consideration, appropriate change management processes would essentially be implemented at such situations when changes in the project scope or plan are requested by the client end and/ or by the members of the project team. Under such circumstances, the following steps would be utilized for ensuring that the changes being requested are justified: Change documentation: The stakeholder raising the change requests would be instruct to document the requests following appropriate templates and structures, thus highlighting the reason behind raising the request, the possible positive and negative effect on the project in case the same is not implemented and the probable effects on the project in case the requested changes are implemented. Discussions on the change request: Once the request documents are available to the higher management associated with the project, the project manager starts reviewing the requests made an the expected outcomes of the same. Besides this, the project manager also takes into account the extent to which the project team has proceeded with the project activities and the extent to which the said progress would be hampered in case the requested changes are incorporated. The review of the above mentioned factors would lead to the finalization of the change requests that can possibly be considered. Once this particular task is completed, the entire project team would start working on the budgetary and resource calculation aspects of the project, so as to highlight the additional budget, resources an time required for incorporating the changes. Detailed records regarding these requirements would then be submitted to the client for the final approval on these change requests. In case the changes are approved by the client and the project sponsor, information regarding the same is shared with all members of the project team. On the other hand, in case the change proposals are dismissed, the information is passed on to that particular stakeholder who raised the change request at the first place. Change implementation: This is the final phase of the change management phase, which is conducted only in case the change requests raised by the stakeholder are approved from the client end. The implementation of the approved changes would be conducted through the following phases: Phase 1: Preparation for change implementation: The strategies and processes to be utilized in the implementation of the change has to be identified, along with the development of the plans required for implementing the same. b. Phase 2: Managing the change: In this phase, the strategic plan develop for the implementation of the change would be shared with the members of the change management team, for the purpose of appropriate implementation of the same. Phase 3: Reinforcing the change: In this phase of the change management process, the project manager would collect feedback from the team members regarding the change, such that success of the change can be observed from the perspective of the team mates along with the identification of any resistance to the same. Based on the information collected from the feedbacks, corrective measures would be taken so as to fill up the gaps in the change management process and to manage the resistance effectively. Communication with Stakeholders The stakeholders associated with the project have been outlined in following table, along with the methods and techniques to be followed in communicating with them. According to researchers Mir and Pinnington (2014), the project closure phase is essentially the last stage of any project activity. The following steps would follow during the project closure phase of the project under consideration: Contract closure: The contracts with the project sponsor, client and the vendors have to close. Verification of scope requirements: The primary aim of the project is to deliver such ICT system to the client that meets all the specific requirements documented in the project charter. Thus, it is essential that the client verifies that the product delivered meets all the requirements included in the scope document and acknowledges the same. Development of project reports: The final reports of the project have to documented in this phase and archived in a proper manner, such that the references to the same can be easily made in future. Conducting post project review: A post project review has to be conducted and the same has to be submitted to the client end. Releasing resources: The resources working on the project would be released. Bibliography: Burke, R., 2013. Project management: planning and control techniques.New Jersey, USA. Kerzner, H., 2013.Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Martinelli, R.J. and Milosevic, D.Z., 2016.Project management toolbox: tools and techniques for the practicing project manager. John Wiley Sons. Mir, F.A. and Pinnington, A.H., 2014. Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success.International Journal of Project Management,32(2), pp.202-217. Pemsel, S. and Wiewiora, A., 2013. Project management office a knowledge broker in project-based organisations.International Journal of Project Management,31(1), pp.31-42. Schwalbe, K., 2015.Information technology project management. Cengage Learning. Too, E.G. and Weaver, P., 2014. The management of project management: A conceptual framework for project governance.International Journal of Project Management,32(8), pp.1382-1394. Verzuh, E., 2015.The fast forward MBA in project management. John Wiley Sons.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Romeo and Juliet Act Three Scene One Essay Example

Romeo and Juliet: Act Three Scene One Essay In Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet, act three scene one becomes a very important part of the play. This is the scene that the play has dramatic changes in, whether it is from a classical comedy to a classical tragedy. To express the desired effect on the audience, staging has its large amounts of importance to play in order to gain impact on the rest of the play.Romeo and Juliet is one of Shakespeares most famous tragedies, it was written in 1595. It is a play about two young people who fall in love and marry each other despite the fact that the families they come from are worst enemies from ancient times, through ancient grudges. This play is considered to be one of the greatest ever written because of the enormous change which takes place in this scene. Plays of Elizabethan England and earlier were divided into genres. Some examples of genre would be comedy, tragedy, and romance and these genres would follow certain patterns. Comedy and tragedy were completely unrelated, therefore, b y having the two plays unite would make it very popular.Today, the genre of comedy is associated with happiness and hilarity and is defined by a story or a play that deliberately causes the audience to laugh; this is a different understanding of the word comedy in Elizabethan England. In Shakespeares England, comedy was usually a story of two lovers who wished to get together but was held back by their elders, the play would then result in a way that the couple would end up married.Shakespeares tragedies were usually quite bloody and ended with the death of a main character; an example of this is in the play of Macbeth. They showed a lot of people suffering and dying, usually because of bad rulers.Romeo and Juliet was not any typical comedy or tragedy, Shakespeare showed his spectators that genres could be combined to create a diverse story. He transformed Romeo and Juliet from a comedy to a tragedy in just one individual scene, which makes this one of the most momentous plays in hi story. It may be difficult for a modern audience to understand the value of this scene in the play due to the Shakespearean language used. I am going to explore how I could make this easily suggested to a modern audience that this is a very important turning point in the play.Act three scene one, this is just after when Romeo and Juliet secretly get married. Tybalt has now become Romeos relative, but still, he doesnt know it. Romeo tries to keep calm when Tybalt demands a fight because Tybalt is Juliets Cousin.The reason why this scene is so significant to the play is because it is a major turning point for the entire play. As mentioned before, act three scene one has a combination of comedy and tragedy. Because of this, it makes it a lot more important than usual. Act 3 scene 1 takes place in a public place. As Mercutio, Benvolio, page and servants enter the scene, they already are having small, immature arguments. This pre-empts the beginning of the scene. Benvolio is the moderate person, the pacifist, the type of person who hopes for no trouble, nor will he cause it. We know this because of the first disagreement between the Montagues and the Capulets in Act 1 Scene 1. The beginning of Act 1 Scene 1 is also similar to this scene, friends are talking among themselves and the other houses come on scene, causing trouble. Right at the beginning of Act 3 Scene 1, Benvolio says:I pray thee, good Mercutio, lets retire:The day is hot, the Capulets abroad,And, if we meet, we shall not scape a brawl;For now, these hot days, is the mad blood stirringThis shows that Benvolio does not want any trouble, but it also prepares us for any arguments that will happen during this scene. A tragedy will happen, and it is inevitable that something bad will happen. The love between Romeo and Juliet brings the tragedy, as we know that during this scene they are already married. The phrase these hot days that Benvolio says reflect on the heat of the day which equals with the tempers frayed which also shows a possibility of fighting. The next phrase that Benvolio says mad blood stirring is also important, as this gives us the suggestion that the heat and the conflicts combine to cause stirring emotions.As Mercutio replies, he tells Benvolio that he is being hypercritical about fighting. Because Mercutio replies Benvolio in a critical way, this prepares the audience for conflict, even between Mercutio and Benvolio, but we know that Benvolio is not like this, he will stop the trouble, whereas Mercutio will be the centre of trouble, he seems to like the sound of his own voice, so even if he dies, he will make a final speech. Benvolio replies in a calm way to Mercutio after he has accused Benvolio of being a hypercritic, he asks am I such a fellow? and it seems as if he has no opinion to what Mercutio has just said about him, he does not get provoked whereas Mercutio is trained in dialectal. Mercutio then argues his case, with the longest possible answer to Benvolio s question, but to the end, all that he says is that why are you telling me that you wont fight, but yes you will, like you have done before Benvolio answers his speech with a few words, he tells Mercutio that giving the right circumstances, he will quarrel, but he will not cause the trouble, just to quarrel.Before Tybalt enters the scene, Mercutio says By my head, here come the Capulets but Mercutio obviously does not care, and replies with By my heel, I care not. This gives us the idea that Mercutio will try and cause trouble. Tybalt then asks Mercutio or Benvolio for a word with one of them, straight away, Mercutio says:And but one word with one of us? Couple it withSomething; make it a word and a blow.With Mercutio saying the words above, it provokes the Capulets; therefore, Tybalt will say things to provoke Mercutio, such as Mercutio, thou consortst with Romeo this means that he is calling Mercutio and Romeo the vagrancy, petty criminals. Both Mercutio and Tybalt end up having an argument that grows every second, using different ways to insult one another. Again, Benvolio tries to stop the arguments, trying to remove the conflicts as he says:We talk in the public haunt of men:Either withdraws unto some private place,And reason coldly of your grievances,Or else depart; here all eyes gaze on us.Benvolios efforts fail, with Mercutio saying let the others stare let their eyes pleasure them. Romeo then enters the scene, we know that he is married to Juliet, therefore, he will not tempt to fight with Tybalt, as Tybalt, is now Romeos cousin.Romeo should have never interfered into the argument of Tybalt and Mercutio. It was like a law for fights and arguments to be one on one as if it was a wrestling match. Romeo says:Tybalt, the reason that I have to love theeDoth must excuse the appertaining rageTo such a greeting: villain am I none;Therefore farewell; I see thou knowst me not.This speech of Romeo makes him sound as if he is backing away from Tybalt and the up coming fight, the speech is ambiguous, what ever Romeo decides to say from now is quite so ambiguous. Romeo repeats what he says about loving Tybalt. When Mercutio sees that no fight will happen, he turns immediately draws his sword. This is important because the calm atmosphere changes automatically when Mercutio is certain no fight will happen, so he draws to cause one. Tybalt then draws his sword too, I am for you. The etiquette of fighting would be that Romeo would not intervene into the fight, as mentioned before; it was seen as an unwritten law of fighting.I have divided the Act 3 scene 1 into 3 parts, the beginning has been described above and I believe that this first part of the scene is important because the atmosphere changes from the calm talk between the Capulets and the Montagues, or even the minor arguments have unexpectedly transformed into a fighting scene involving weapons to slaughter. I also believe that it is an important part of the overall scene because the et iquette of fighting has been broken; meaning that this can show us that many other cultural things in the play may have a slight change.The second section of the play is all about the fight that is between Tybalt, Mercutio and Romeo. It is about Mercutios death, and the curse that will fly upon both the Capulets and the Montagues. Because Mercutio and Tybalt are fighting, Romeo tells Benvolio:Draw, Benvolio; beat down their weapons.Gentlemen, for shame, forbear this outrage!Tybalt, Mercutio, the prince expressly hathForbidden bandying in Verona streets:Hold, Tybalt! Good Mercutio!As Romeo interferes into the fight, as he steps in between them, Tybalt, under Romeos arm stabs Mercutio, and flies with his followers. Tybalt runs when he realises what he has done, he has little retribution. Yet still, Mercutio speaks whilst he is hurt, he likes the sound of his own voice. After he gets stabbed, he says:I am hurtA plague o both your houses! I am sped.Is he gone, and hath nothing?When Merc utio says this, it is as if the Montagues and the Capulets are pre-destined for something bad to happen. Benvolio is much more concerned than Romeo; he shows this by saying what, art thou hurt? Mercutios reply sounds as if the wound is not much at first, he says Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch but, when he finishes his sentence with the words marry, tis enough. We know that Mercutio is seriously injured, and with that one stabbing under Romeos arm, has done enough to kill him. He also asks his page (servant) to go and find him a surgeon; this shows us that he still wants to live, that hed rather die with pride, and not through a misfortune.Then, Romeo is being very insensitive with the words he say, courage, man; the hurt cannot be much Mercutio still keeps up with his character with all the intelligent talk that he says even when he is slowly dying. Mercutio is a very important person because he is the kinsman of the Prince, during the speech after Romeos comment, he says grave man at one point. This is a metaphorical phrase to show his decaying in life, with these words used, Shakespeare is showing that his intelligence is still with him. Within the same speech, he says a plague o both your houses again, this is repeated o the audience of the play understands and remembers that Mercutio is now wanting both the Montagues and the Capulets to fall from their top position. When Mercutio says: Why the devil came you between us? I was hut under your arm. Here Mercutio is talking to Romeo, he wonders why he interfered. This quote also shows that Mercutio did not want to die through an accident, and he hopes he wont, because he would rather loose a fight and die because of Tybalt, and only Tybalt. Romeos response was that he thought all for the best of Mercutio, but, he was not thinking at all, the traditional law of fighting was not to get in the way of two peoples fight, but Romeo did.Mercutio once more reminds us that he hopes for a plague to attack the Montagues an d the Capulets. He says they have made worms meat of me with reference to grave man his last words are imperative too. He knows that he does not have a sufficient amount of breath to tell us a plague should hit both the Montagues and the Capulets, so he cautiously and wisely says your houses. Both Benvolio and Mercutio now exeunt this part of the scene and leave Romeo to think about his actions. Romeo, to himself says:This gentleman, the princes near ally,My very friend, hath got his mortal hurtIn my behalf; my reputation staindWith Tybalts slander,Tybalt, that an hourHath been my kinsman! O sweet Juliet,Thy beauty hath made me effeminateAnd in my temper softend valours steel!Here he blames Juliet for Mercutios death; he never blames himself for nothing, he blames Juliet here, and soon, he will blame fate. After Benvolio tells us that Mercutio has died, Romeo says:This days black fate on more days doth depend;This but begins the woe, others must end.This is when Romeo finally realis es that what has happened will have very big consequences, repercussions, he is saying that the future is being destined, and it will end up in a strange way. As mentioned before, Romeo and Juliet is a play that is different to a normal Shakespearean time comedy or tragedy, the two have been combined, so we will, from this point forward will also have the idea that diverse things compared to the original will happen.As Tybalt enters the scene again, Romeo immediately says:Alive, in triumph! And Mercutio slain!Away to heaven, respective lenity,And fire-eyed fury be my conduct now!Again, Romeo is not thinking, and he again, causes trouble. Here, as both Romeo and Tybalt fight, Benvolio does not interfere, but, Tybalt has fallen to the ground, and as mentioned before, Romeo will blame anything but himself, even fate, just like in this situation, where he says o, I am fortunes fool. Benvolio then tells Romeo to run, he does not run with Romeo, as we know, he has nothing to run from.The second part of the scene is important because of the fight between Tybalt and Mercutio, where Mercutio dies, and the vengeance fight between Romeo and Tybalt, where Tybalt falls. The part before this second part of the scene shows that something bad will happen, here, something bad does happens. I believe that it is an important scene because it shows how Romeo, Tybalt and Benvolio are really like. Tybalt and Romeo are similar in personality, they both are stubborn and they will not give up on a fight once started. They both do not think before they speak, and they do not think before they act either.The final part of the play is about the authority and the citizens questioning Benvolio for the truth. Also in this scene, the prince decides upon a punishment for Romeo to suite both the Capulets and the Montagues, so no more trouble will be caused. When the prince arrives on scene, he does not take any notice of the biased persons comments. He asks the one who has witnessed, in this c ase Benvolio, Where are the ville beginners of this fray the prince does not ask who killed Tybalt, nor does he judge, but what he does do is try to understand the nature of the brawl, who, what, why, when and where. Benvolios answer to his question is all accuracy; he seems to have no emotion at all, the way his speech is written also seems dispassionate. Lady Capulet then says her point of view about the death of Tybalt. She is an emotional out pour; however this is understandable because Tybalt is her kinsman. The word she uses O is an appeal to God, to the prince to do something about the death of Tybalt.The prince then asks Benvolio who began this bloody fray? again; he is asking Benvolio for a truthful answer, and not a pack of lies. Benvolio again does what he does, he is the moderate, he is a peace keeper, and he talks truth if he is asked for it, unlike Romeo and Tybalt. In his speech, when he says how nice the quarrel was he does not mean nice, he means petty, immature, it should not have happened. Secondly, I quote with gentle breath, calm look, knees humbly bowd here, Benvolio is trying to make the situation for Romeo easier, he placates it. He does not blame Romeo, nor does he blame Tybalt, but he does ease the trouble for Romeo, this is understandable because Romeo is after all, his friend. Thirdly, Benvolio says of Tybalt deaf to peace this is saying that Tybalt would not listen to Romeos thought and Mercutio who all as hot, his anger equivalent to Tybalts, and yet still they both fought the battle with one another, causing more trouble as Mercutio died, because now, Romeo is seeking revenge on behalf of Mercutio against Tybalt. The quote who had but newly entertaind revenge tells us that Romeo is seeking for the vengeance. The very last line of this speech reads This is the truth or let Benvolio die this shows that Benvolio was so certain that he told the truth, he knows he will not die because of defamation. His statement is all accurate; the audience also knows this too.After Benvolio has told the story, we know that is true, the Capulets want Romeo dead, whereas the Montagues prefer him alive. The prince now needs to make a decision to benefit both houses because if it does not, more conflicts will be caused out of this. The prince has listened to the story of Benvolio, he has heard what both Houses want, so he needs to make a decision at that particular time. He says:Romeo slew him, he slew Mercutio;Who now the price of his dear blood doth owe?This shows that the prince is thinking effectively and he does not want the houses to have any more trouble caused. He also says one last final speech at the end of the scene before everyone exits:And for that offenceImmediately we do exile him hence:I have an interest in your hates proceeding,My blood for your rude brawls doth lie a-bleeding;But Ill amerce you with so strong a fineThat you shall all repent the loss of mine:Nor tears nor prayers shall purchase out abuses:Theref ore use none: let Romeo hence in haste,Else, when hes found, that hour is his last.Bear hence this body and attend our will:Mercy but murders, pardoning those that kill.This speech of the prince shows us that the prince is hurt he does want Mercutio to be alive, and because he is dead, he will ask both the Montagues and the Capulets to pay a fine.Overall, this scene has much importance to the play, it has a major turning point, and this scene is where the comedy of the Shakespearean time and the tragedy combines to create an interesting and exciting combination. I have included many quotes, and have described this to support my initiative.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Free Essays on The Great Chain Of Being

Most of the concepts about the nature of living things in the early modern era were derived from the writings of Aristotle. Aristotle wrote about the concept of distinct types of organisms that could be distinguished from all the rest. Aristotle was interested in much more than the biological world, and attempted to build a theory of the world as a whole. As part of this theory, he believed that all of nature could be seen as a continuum of organization from lifeless matter. This matter consisted of the four embracements of water, earth, fire and air and composed everything all the way to the most complex forms of life. He thought of humans as different from the rest of animals though because of their capacity for reason and thought. Aristotle proposed a rank ordering of all living things, from the least to the highest (humans). This idea developed, during the later centuries, into the concept of the "Great Chain of Being". All living things were seen as members of unchanging t ypes, called species, which could be ordered from the least to the highest. Each species has at least one similarity between the species above it and below it in the â€Å"ladder†. Only individuals were born and died; species themselves were eternal. The metaphor of the "chain" of being suggested that these species were linked to each other by a logical progression. This concept, in the Western tradition, is the result of the attempt to combine the Aristotelian philosophy and Christian theology. To look at this from the religious standpoint natural theologists used the great chain of being to show that God had created stability in the world and linked all life together to prove that God existed. God created species in the great chain of being in a perfect set and hierarchy. In the religious aspect, God and the angels were at the top of the ladder and gave humans the â€Å"divine right† to command over the animals on down to plants, and then earth itself... Free Essays on The Great Chain Of Being Free Essays on The Great Chain Of Being Most of the concepts about the nature of living things in the early modern era were derived from the writings of Aristotle. Aristotle wrote about the concept of distinct types of organisms that could be distinguished from all the rest. Aristotle was interested in much more than the biological world, and attempted to build a theory of the world as a whole. As part of this theory, he believed that all of nature could be seen as a continuum of organization from lifeless matter. This matter consisted of the four embracements of water, earth, fire and air and composed everything all the way to the most complex forms of life. He thought of humans as different from the rest of animals though because of their capacity for reason and thought. Aristotle proposed a rank ordering of all living things, from the least to the highest (humans). This idea developed, during the later centuries, into the concept of the "Great Chain of Being". All living things were seen as members of unchanging t ypes, called species, which could be ordered from the least to the highest. Each species has at least one similarity between the species above it and below it in the â€Å"ladder†. Only individuals were born and died; species themselves were eternal. The metaphor of the "chain" of being suggested that these species were linked to each other by a logical progression. This concept, in the Western tradition, is the result of the attempt to combine the Aristotelian philosophy and Christian theology. To look at this from the religious standpoint natural theologists used the great chain of being to show that God had created stability in the world and linked all life together to prove that God existed. God created species in the great chain of being in a perfect set and hierarchy. In the religious aspect, God and the angels were at the top of the ladder and gave humans the â€Å"divine right† to command over the animals on down to plants, and then earth itself...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Ethical issues in urban planning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ethical issues in urban planning - Essay Example The code of ethics and the ethical principles in planning, present a comprehensive insight to the planners regarding their professional duties and responsibilities. The key ideas and principles that are highlighted in the code of ethics and ethical principles are given below. Aspirational values are discussed in much more detail that provide the planners a sense of commitment and belonging to different stakeholder especially pertaining to institute, profession, colleagues, clients, employers and the general public. However, the responsibilities of the planners in this respect are not binding to them. Code of ethics also provides specific procedures to deal with misconduct charges. Detailed discussions are highlighted in respect of proceeding of a misconduct case, rulings and the alleged violations in the code of ethics. Another quite important aspect that is highlighted in the code is the matters relating to serious crime commitments. Very stringent and rigorous procedures are detailed in the code of ethics with serious consequences in case if a crime is proved in respect of a planner. The ethical principles emphasize the planners on achieving high degree of standards while serving to the public interest as part of their utmost professional liability. This principle requires planner to provide accurate information to the public, plan for the needs of public, clarify the true goals and objectives, safe guard of environmental heritage and concentrate on decision making process along with the consequences of them Another promising feature of the ethical principle states that planners should ensure the integrity and proficiency so that the image of profession should not be hampered. For this objective, the planners are restricted in their dealings such that maintaining integrity and faithfulness, prohibiting the acceptance of the gifts,